The United Kingdom was not a party of the Agreement on Social Policy and secured an "opt out" from the protocol. Sterling's release from the ERM was then followed in the UK by an economic recovery and a significant fall in unemployment. In particolare il debito pubblico di un paese non può superare il 60% del suo P.I.L. This narrow vote for ratification in France, known at the time as the 'petite oui', led Jacques Delors to comment that "Europe began as an elitist project in which it was believed that all that was required was to convince the decision-makers. Dunkelste Stunden. Die Dokumente zeigen: Frankreich hat das schnelle Ende der Mark erzwungen. Following the EU accessions of Austria, Finland, and Sweden, it was in turn amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), and Nice (2001). [32] Whereas the Bundesbank, under article 12 of its constitution, is "bound to support the general economic policy of the [German] Federal Government", the obligation of the ECB to "support the general economic policies in the Community" is to be "without prejudice" to price stability, the Bank's "primary objective". Expression index: 1-400, 401-800, 801-1200, More. sottoscritto il 7 febbraio 1992 dai 12 Stati membri della Comunità Europea nella città di Maastricht ed entrato in vigore il 1º novembre 1993, dopo la ratificazione dei Parlamenti degli Stati membri, il Trattato di Maastricht amplia i poteri della CE; fissa i tempi e i modi dell'unificazione economica e politica dell'Europa; decide la realizzazione di una banca centrale. Il Trattato di Maastricht. trattato di maastricht trattato sull'unione europea gazzetta ufficiale n. c 191 del 29 luglio 1992 sua maestÀ il re dei belgi, sua maestÀ la regina di danimarca, il presidente della repubblica federale di germania, il presidente della repubblica ellenica, sua maestÀ il re di spagna, il … Without consulting with Karl Otto Pöhl, President of the Bundesbank, Kohl accepted the deal. [32] The commitment to monetary union and the convergence criteria denied member states the resort to currency deflation to ease balance-of-payments constraints on domestic spending, and left labour market "flexibility" as the only means of coping with asymmetric economic shocks. Among its most prominent innovations, the treaty: provides the legal basis for 6 new EU common policies; safeguard the EU’s common values, fundamental interests and independence; strengthen the security of the EU and its member countries; preserve peace and international security in line with, develop and consolidate democracy and the. Title I, Common Provisions, establishes the European Union (EU) on the foundation of the three, already partially merged, European Communities: the European Economic Community (EEC), the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). – Der Kanzler öffnet die Akten über die deutsche Einheit. On 16 September 1992 the British government had been forced to withdraw the pound sterling from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), after a failed and costly attempt to keep the pound above its mandated exchange rate limit. The Maastricht Treaty, concluded in 1992 between the twelve Member States of the European Communities, is the foundation treaty of the European Union (EU). From Libreria Oreste Gozzini snc (Firenze, FI, Italy) AbeBooks Seller Since 01 October 2009 Seller Rating. The treaties (primary legislation) are the basis or ground rules for all EU action. Our main task is to maintain price stability in the euro area and so preserve the purchasing power of the single currency. It is further conditioned by the express understanding that "neither the ECB, nor a national central bank, nor any member of their decision-making bodies, shall seek or take instructions from Community institutions or bodies from any Government of a Member State or from any other body. ", "Still rooted in Maastricht: EU external relations as a 'third-generation hybrid, The Treaty on European Union, signed at Maastricht on 7 February 1992, The History of the European Union – The Treaty of Maastricht, Proposed 1962 treaty establishing a "European Union", Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Netherlands Antilles Association Convention, Treaty establishing the European Political Community, Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, Treaty Establishing the European Stability Mechanism, Post-Brexit United Kingdom relations with the European Union, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maastricht_Treaty&oldid=995151759, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 14:46. [22], Having "resolved to achieve the strengthening and the convergence and to establish an economic and monetary union including,... a single and stable currency",[23] the Treaty ruled that "Member States shall regard their economic policies as a matter of common concern", and that the obligations assumed should be a matter for "mutual surveillance. [36], Taking issue in defence of the Maastricht criteria, German finance minister Wolfgang Schäuble argued that "the old way to stimulate growth will not work." Beginning in 2009 with Greece, the governments of several Euro-zone countries (Portugal, Ireland, Spain and Cyprus) declared themselves unable to repay or refinance their government debt or to bail out over-indebted banks without assistance from third parties. In consequence of the Dutch Presidency of the Council of the European Communities during the previous six months of negotiation, the Treaty was signed in the Netherlands, in the city of Maastricht. Title VII, Final Provisions, covers a number of anomalous issues. The text has been produced for documentary purposes and does not involve the responsibility of the institutions. Under the name " Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union ", it remains one of the two most important treaties in what is … The "foundations of co-decision in the Maastricht Treaty" have led to the "trialogues" involving the European Parliament, Council and Commission, which have become standard legislative practice.[44]. In these and other areas which do not fall within Community's "exclusive competence", in accordance with "the principle of subsidiarity" action is to be taken only if, "by reason of the scale or effects", the objectives cannot be more "efficiently" achieved by the Member States themselves.[4]. In both cases, Member States are to "inform and consult one another within the Council [of Ministers]",[5] but otherwise cooperate independently of Community institutions. Title II, Provisions Amending the Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community, reformulates the EEC as the central "pillar" of the Union. Ventotto anni fa è stato firmato il Trattato di Maastricht.La sera del 7 febbraio 1992, nei Paesi Bassi, sulle rive della Mosa, i dodici membri della Cee siglato il trattato che dà vita all’Unione Europea. Il trattato sull'Unione europea, firmato il 7 febbraio 1992 a Maastricht, è entrato in vigore il 1o novembre 1993. In a new EU country of residence Member-State nationals have the right to vote, and to stand, in both local and European elections. Greek finance minister Yanis Varoufakis credited the Maastricht criteria with framing of a union of deflation and unemployment. There is a real "moral hazard" in allowing Member States to accumulate higher debts within the Eurozone – higher debts which, ultimately, have no relationship to higher growth. La firma arriva al termine dei negoziati. [16] From the beginning of 1990, high German interest rates, set by the Bundesbank to counteract inflationary impact of the expenditure on German reunification, caused significant stress across the whole of the ERM. In establishing the European Union the Maastricht Treaty amended the treaties that had established the European Communities in the 1950s. Although these were widely seen to presage a "federal Europe", the focus of constitutional debate shifted to the later 2007 Treaty of Lisbon. [31], The Treaty dedicates the EU central banking system to price stability, and gives it "a degree of independence from elected officials" greater even "than that of its putative model, the German Bundesbank". The Treaty rules that "every person holding the nationality of a Member State shall be a citizen of the Union". Other amendments create the office of European Ombudsman, expand the Structural Fund assistance to the poorer EU regions; and broaden Community competencies in education, culture, public health, consumer protection, trans-European networks, industry and the environment. As an implicit presumption subsidiarity may have been considered a check upon the supranational development of the EEC. Advertising. Nel Trattato si fissano dei parametri per stabilire se un paese sia in grado di far parte dell’Unione economica e monetaria. Set along side the European Community, the cooperation proposed in the Maastricht Treaty on foreign and security policy, and on justice and home affairs, were characterised in official commentary as the second and third "pillars" of the Union. 0107 - 0108 Gazzetta ufficiale n. – Hinter der Fassade ihrer deutsch-französischen Freundschaft haben Helmut Kohl und François Mitterrand erbittert um Einheit und Euro gerungen, wie jetzt neue Dokumente aus dem Kanzleramt zeigen. In protest against the social-policy opt out, Labour opposed, while "anti-federalists" split the governing Conservatives. The treaty was signed on 25 March 1957 by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany, and it came into force on 1 January 1958. Insert free text, CELEX number or descriptors. Il trattato ha inoltre istituito la Banca centrale europea (BCE) e il Sistema europeo di banche centrali, precisandone le finalità. Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies Against the background of the end of the Cold War and the re-unification of Germany, and in anticipation of accelerated globalisation, the treaty negotiated tensions between member states seeking deeper integration and those wishing to retain greater national control. Rather there are "a series of tentative indications for Community action in a document full of imprecise concepts: 'sufficiently', 'better achieved', 'what is necessary', 'to achieve the objectives', subjective notions which leave the way wide open for interpretation or practical developments. Inflation at a rate no more than 1.5 percentage points higher than the average of the three best performing (lowest inflation) Member States; 2. a "budgetary position" that avoids "excessive" government deficits defined in ratios to gross domestic product (GDP) of greater than 3% for annual deficits and 60% for gross government debt; 3. the exchange rate of the national currency within "the normal fluctuation margins by the exchange-rate mechanism of the European Monetary System without However, the price of German cooperation was widely perceived as German dictation of the terms. Treaty on European Union (OJ C 191, 29.7.1992, pp. Annexed to the Treaty is a Protocol, and an Agreement, on Social Policy. Word index: 1-300, 301-600, 601-900, More. [35], These constraints were to become the focus of political scrutiny and public protest in the new-century European debt crisis. L'Unione disponeva di un quadro istituzionale unico, composto dal Consiglio, dal Pa… These criteria in turn dictated the mandate of the European System of Central Banks comprising the national central banks, but to include the prospective currency-issuing European Central Bank. Guarda cosa ho condiviso: PMLI - 209 miliardi capestro all'Italia. It creates the European Union. 21. Expansion plans may also be in jeopardy", "The Maastricht Debate: Major 'driven to confidence factor': Commons Exchanges: Treaty issue 'cannot fester any longer, 1990–1992: Britain and the politics of the European exchange rate mechanism, Conflicting Authorities: States, Currency Markets and the ERM Crisis of 1992–93, "A Practitioner's Guide to the Maastricht Treaty". La parte finale del trattato di Maastricht "il vincolo del 3%" (self.SamueleDelPapa) submitted 1 hour ago by SamueleDelPapa. Il Trattato di Maastricht introdusse inoltre il concetto di cittadinanza europea, di cui godono tutti i cittadini degli stati membri dell'Unione. Association Member: ILAB; Quantity available: 1. "Failing a Council decision", which would require unanimity, a Member State is free to take such action as it considers "necessary". [12] The Treaty built on the growing suggestion that there was a Community-wide basis for citizenship rights. Fact Sheets on the European Union - 2020", "The European Security and Defence Identity: NATO and the WEU (19 April 1999)", "What happens to our neutrality when the chips are down? [41] This, in part, was a concession to United Kingdom which continued to insist on the sufficiency of the North Atlantic alliance (supported by the neutral, non-aligned, Member States, the Republic of Ireland and Austria, at the 1997 Amsterdam summit the UK prevented a merger of the WEU and the EU),[42][43]. Maastricht, Trattato di Trattato istitutivo dell’Unione Europea (UE). Works related to Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union at Wikisource, This article is about one of two founding treaties of the European Union. Secondary legislation – which includes regulations, directives and decisions – are derived from the principles and objectives set out in the treaties. Use, Other sites managed by the Publications Office, travel and live freely anywhere in the EU, Portal of the Publications Office of the EU. [18] But when asked in 1990 by German Chancellor Helmut Kohl to agree to German re-unification, French President François Mitterrand accepted only in the event Germany would abandon the Deutsche Mark and adopt a common currency. Il trattato di Maastricht si poneva come obiettivo da raggiungere entro il 1999 la creazione di una moneta comune unica (euro) e di una Banca centrale europea. Weg ohne Wiederkehr. [46], The 1992 Treaty may have introduced a more consequential constitutional principle in its promotion "co-decision". trattato di maastricht 860. in vigore del trattato di lisbona 786. trattato di adesione 616. dal trattato di lisbona 563. progetto di trattato 428. trattato di non proliferazione 360. trattato di pace. Firmato a M. (Paesi Bassi), il 7 febbr. Coordination in foreign and security policy had taken place since the beginning of the 1970s under the name of European Political Cooperation (EPC), which had been first written into the treaties by the 1987 Single European Act. It amends the EEC's Treaty of Rome constitution, renaming it the European Community to reflect the Union's broader ambition. Jacques Santer, Prime Minister of Luxembourg. 4. nominal long-term interest rates no more than 2 percentage points higher than in the three Member States with the lowest inflation. Tasso d'inflazione non superiore dell'1,5% rispetto a quello dei tre Paesi più virtuosi. [44] Subsidiarity can be read as a federalising principle. This has been described as a "reversed Keynesianism": macro-economic policy not to secure a full-employment level of demand, but, through the restrictive control of monetary growth and public expenditure, to maintain price and financial market stability; micro economic policy, not to engineer income and price controls in support of fiscal expansion, but to encourage job creation by reducing barriers to lower labour costs. e i testi collegati. Prime Minister John Major was able to face down his "Maastricht Rebels" only by tying ratification to the survival of the government in a vote of confidence.[11]. "[24] Commonly known as the Maastricht Criteria,[25][26] these obligations represented the performance thresholds for member states to progress toward the third stage of European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), the adoption the common currency (designated at the 1995 Madrid European as the Euro).[27]. The Maastricht criteria, he insisted, were correct in placing the onus for growth on "competitiveness, structural reforms, investment, and sustainable financing".[37]. For every endeavour it poses the question of whether national or Community policy is the most effective means, and elevates simple utility above any deference to national or local feeling. severe tensions for at least the last two years"; and. This document is an excerpt from the EUR-Lex website. December 12 1991: Maastricht Treaty hailed as great leap forward despite Major concessions By David Gow in Bonn, Paul Webster in Paris and John Palmer in … In several of these areas, the Treaty seeks to enhance the "democratic functioning" of the institutions by conceding the directly-elected European Parliament rights not only of consultation but also of co-decision. In the wake of the Eurozone debt crisis unfolding from 2009, the most enduring reference to the Maastricht Treaty has been to the rules of compliance – the "Maastricht criteria" – for the currency union. Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union, Presidency of the Council of the European Communities, Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Treaty establishing the European Defence Community, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, "EC Leaders at Sea Over Danish Rejection: Europe: Vote against Maastricht Treaty blocks the march to unity. establishing rules and controls for the EU’s external borders; organising criminal and civil judicial cooperation; provide multilateral surveillance of this coordination; respect financial and budgetary discipline. With a view to ensuring that the dynamic of the European Single Market respect certain minimum social and employment protections, these allow the Council of Ministers to approve relevant proposals from the European Commission on the basis of a qualified majority rather than unanimous consent. Maastricht Signature Netherlands.jpg 1,358 × 682; 61 KB Maastricht Signature Spain.jpg 1,004 × 491; 33 KB Maastricht Sinature Portugal.jpg 1,140 × 551; 45 KB Per aderire al Trattato di Maastricht nei diversi paesi è stato indetto un referendum 20. Progetto Curricolare di Cittadinanza e Costituzione a.s. 2016-2017, classe 4A Liceo Scientifico Capoterra - I.I.S. It introduced procedures that made the European Parliament "co-legislator with the Council of Ministers" and have since have since been developed and extended to nearly all areas where the Council decides by qualified majority voting. I parametri di Maastricht o criteri di convergenza sono i requisiti economici e finanziari che gli Stati dell'Unione europea devono soddisfare per l'ingresso nell'Unione economica e monetaria dell'Unione europea (UEM). Sceptics note that the Treaty offers no legally actionable definition of subsidiarity. As envisaged by the Treaty,[30] the ECB replaced its shadow European Monetary Institute on 1 June 1998, and began exercising its full powers with the introduction of the euro on 1 January 1999. The Maastricht Treaty, concluded in 1992 between the 12 member states of the European Communities, is the foundation treaty of the European Union (EU). [40] Yet it is clear that nothing is to be construed as systematically constraining the foreign or defence policies of the individual Member States. The EU inherited many of its present responsibilities from, and the membership of the European Communities (EC), which were founded in the 1950s in the spirit of the Schuman Declaration. Having "resolved to continue the process of creating an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe", the Treaty proposes "further steps to be taken in order to advance European integration"[2] under seven titles. Il Trattato di Maastricht è stato firmato il 7 febbraio 1992, avviando il percorso verso l’unione politica e monetaria dei membri. Political debate continued as to who should have access to public services and welfare systems funded by taxation.[14]. That phase of benign despotism is over. In time, the tension between the transferred worker as "a mobile unit of production" contributing to the success of the single market, and the reality of the Community migrants as individuals, seeking to exercise "a personal right" to live and work in another state for their own, and their families', welfare, asserted itself. [15] The ERM was the centrepiece of the European Monetary System (EMS), set up on voluntary basis in 1978 to reduce the "barrier" that exchange-rate volatility presented for intra-Community commerce (and for the management of payments under the Common Agricultural Policy). The Maastricht Treaty is of course the main example of a legally-binding agreement among privileged countries. Trattato di Maastricht Trattato sull’Unione Europea firmato a Maastricht il 7 febbraio 1992 dagli allora 12 Paesi membri della Comunità Europea (Belgio, Danimarca, Francia, Germania, Gran Bretagna, Grecia, Irlanda, Italia, Lussemburgo, Paesi Bassi, Portogallo, Spagna), entrato in vigore il 1° novembre 1993. The West European Union, an until recently moribund club within NATO, is described as "an integral part of the development of the Union", and asked it to help "elaborate and implement decisions and actions of the Union which have defence implications. Britain had signed up to the ERM in 1990 as a token of the government's commitment to control inflation (then running at three times the rate of Germany). It is the result of a combined effort on the part of the General Secretariat of the Council and of the Commission. From the establishment of the European Economic Community in 1957, integrationists argued the free movement of workers was the logical corollary of the free movement of capital, goods and services and integral to the establishment of a common (and later single) European market. The four "convergence criteria", as detailed in attached protocols,[28][29] impose control over inflation, public debt and the public deficit, exchange rate stability and domestic interest rates. Il trattato sull'Unione europea è stato firmato a Maastricht alla presenza del Presidente del Parlamento europeo, on. [19][20], Since being forced by speculation against the franc to abandon the centrepiece of his Socialist programme in 1983, a job creating reflation,[21] Mitterrand had been committed to drawing Germany into a currency partnership. Officially known as the Treaty on European Union, the Maastricht Treaty marked the beginning of ‘a new stage in the process of creating an ever-closer union among the peoples of Europe’ by giving the previous communities a political dimension. In Britain the Maastricht rebellion drew on the experience of Black Wednesday. "[45] Jacques Santer, Prime Minister of Luxembourg, conceded that consensus around the principle of subsidiarity had been possible only because "it conceals different interpretations". [34], In ruling out any role for the future ECB and euro in national, or Union-coordinated, reflationary policies Maastricht affirmed what by the late 1980s was the general economic-policy orthodoxy within the Community. Unresolved in the Treaty is the question of their access to social rights. It confirms among its objectives are "the introduction of a citizenship of the Union" common to the nationals of the Member States; "economic and monetary union, ultimately including a single currency"; and "a common foreign and security policy including the eventual framing of a common defence".[3]. In secondo luogo il trattato stabiliva l'avvio di una politica estera e per la sicurezza comuni. It also grants the Parliament the power to confirm (and therefore to veto) Council nominations for the European Commission, the Community's secretariat.. A.Strutture dell'Unione Con l'istituzione dell'Unione europea, il trattato di Maastricht ha segnato una nuova tappa nel processo volto a creare «un'unione sempre più stretta tra i popoli dell'Europa». Il Trattato di Maastricht e la Comunità Europea Il Trattato di Maastricht, firmato il 7 Febbraio 1992 ed entrato in vigore il 1 Novembre 1993, è l' atto fondativo dell'Unione Europea. The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank of the 19 European Union countries which have adopted the euro. Titles III and IV amend the treaties establishing the ECSC and Euratom to complete their absorption into the structure of European Community. In September 1992, a referendum in France narrowly supported the ratification of the treaty, with 50.8% in favour. This encompasses 3 separate strands (so-called pillars): cooperation between EU governments on justice and home affairs. The resulting compromise faced what was to be the first in a series of EU treaty ratification crises. But in making it an explicit constitutional principle the Maastricht Treaty opened up "debates about whether this strengthened the states, regions or local government vis-à-vis the EU or vice versa". With limited leeway granted in exceptional circumstances, the obligations are to maintain: 1. This aims to provide the public with a high level of safety by: This gives every national of an EU country the right to: It was signed on 7 February 1992 and entered into force on 1 November 1993. Maastricht is an ambitious treaty. L’Unione europea così creata veniva edificata sui tre pilastri del progetto Santer, il cui principale sarebbe stato quello noto come “Comunità europea”. Il trattato di Maastricht rappresenta una tappa determinante della costruzione europea. increased legislative powers for the European Parliament; more majority voting when EU governments adopt legislation. Amendments incorporate (as detailed in attached protocols) a staged progression toward monetary union including the price-stability-first criteria for adoption of the single currency and for the operations of the prospective European Central Bank (ECB). For the 1843 treaty between Belgium and the Netherlands, see, The Treaty of Maastricht, here shown at an exhibition in, Foreign and security policy, justice and home affairs, European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom), Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters. Attraverso l'istituzione dell'Unione europea, la creazione di un'unione economica e monetaria e l'estensione dell'integrazione europea a nuovi settori, la Comunità entra in una dimensione politica. Ha segnato il momento culminante di vari decenni di dibattito sul rafforzamento della cooperazione economica in Europa. "[33], Seeming to further preclude any possibility of the single-currency banking system being used to regulate European financial markets in support of expansionary – potentially inflationary – policies, the Treaty expressly prohibits the ECB or any Member State central extending "overdraft facilities or any other type of credit facility" to "Community institutions or bodies, central governments, regional, local or other public authorities, other bodies governed by public law, or public undertakings of Member States", or the purchase from them debt instruments. United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs. This publication reproduces the text of the Treaty on European Union, as signed in Maastricht on 7 February 1992. The new provisions called on governments to "inform and consult one another within the Council [of Ministers]]",[39] but otherwise continued cooperation on the basis of intergovernmental liaison outside of the EC and its institutions. petition the European Parliament and address any complaints of EU administrative malpractice to the. Save for Later. [13] This common and parallel citizenship accords the Member State migrants not only the civil right to take up residence and employment, but also, and for the first time, political rights. 1-112). La cittadinanza europea assegna il diritto di [7], In the first Danish referendum, on 2 June 1992, the treaty was rejected by a margin of 50.7% to 49.3%. [6] In the cases of Denmark, France and Ireland this required referenda. Cooperation on law enforcement, criminal justice, asylum, and immigration and other judicial matters was being pursued under the 1990 Schengen Agreement and Convention. Bacaredda-Atzeni di Cagliari Trattato che istituisce la Comunità europea (versione consolidata Nizza) - Parte terza: Politiche della Comunità - Titolo XIX: Ambiente - Articolo 174 - Articolo 130 R - Trattato CE (versione consolidata Maastricht) - Gazzetta ufficiale n. C 325 del 24/12/2002 pag. Formally the Treaty on European Union, it announced "a new stage in the process of European integration"[1] chiefly in provisions for a shared European citizenship, for the eventual introduction of a single currency, and (with less precision) for common foreign and security policies. It was to do the same with respect to the obligation to enter the final, single-currency, stage of monetary union (the UK would not have to give up Pound sterling). In Ireland, the Eleventh Amendment of the Constitution, allowing the state to ratify the Treaty, was approved in a referendum held on 18 June 1992 with the support of 69.1% of votes cast. EU legislation is divided into primary and secondary. Title V and VI extend existing intergovernmental consultations on foreign-policy, security and defence matters, and on "cooperation in the fields of justice and home affairs."

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